Throughout the West, groundwater pumping occurs at unsustainable levels. This practice jeopardizes the primary water supply for many communities, industries and the environment. It also dramatically decreases communities’ resiliency during dry times when groundwater serves as a critical buffer against surface water shortages. Water in the West facilitates interdisciplinary research in law and policy, geophysics, engineering, economics and ecosystem science to identify and develop solutions for more effective groundwater management and policy. We develop new tools to better understand groundwater resources; identify ways to resolve water allocation disputes; and find legal, regulatory and policy pathways to successful implementation of groundwater legislation.